There are two main types of badge that Cubs can work towards independently Activity Badges and Staged Activity Badges.
Activity badges are one offs, that are often repeated in each section (Beavers, Cubs and Scouts), but are harder to gain as you move through the sections. Each activity badge will have a number of tasks that need to be completed in order for the Cub to obtain the badge.
Staged activity badges are carried through each section and have a level associated with them. Badges such as Nights Away and Hikes record how many of each of these activities the Cub has completed over the course of their scouting lives. Whilst something like the swimming badge shows how the Cub is progressing in that sport.
Both badges can be completed as part of the pack in an evenings or camp activity, but most can also be completed outside of Cubs with parents support. Speak to a leader about what evidence is needed and we can point you in the right direction.
A list of the badges that can be obtained,and what needs to be done can be found at:
Link to Cub Badges